Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Infection is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates, with group B streptococcus (GBS) remaining the most frequent pathogen isolated from term infants. Prevention strategies based on universal screening and intrapartum chemoprophylaxis to reduce vertical transmission of invasive GBS disease in at-risk women resulted in substantial reduction in early-onset GBS disease. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended universal antenatal screening at 35 to 37 weeks of pregnancy and intrapartum chemoprophylaxis to all GBS-colonized women at the time of labor or premature rupture of membranes (PROM) including women planning delivery by cesarean section. The only exception was for GBS-colonized women who have a planned cesarean delivery prior to the onset of labor or PROM.